For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.9, 15.46
Author Last Name, First Name. Year "Article Title." Journal Title Volume (Issue): Page Range of Article. doi: Digital Object Identifier.
For electronic journal articles, if a DOI is not available, replace the DOI portion of the reference with the URL.
Hunter, Margaret. 2016. "Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students." Theory into Practice 55 (1): 54-61. doi: 10.1080/00405841.2016.1119019.
Thompson, Maxine S., and Keith Verna M. 2001. "The Blacker the Berry: Gender, Skin Tone, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy." Gender and Society 15 (3): 336-57. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3081888.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.47
Magazine articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As Scott Spencer mentions in his May 1979 Harper's article "Childhood's End," ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if a formal citation is needed, follow the example below, separating the year and month/day.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Month Day.
Inclusive page numbers are not included in the reference list entry because magazine articles tend to appear on non-consecutive pages. If citing an online magazine, end the citation with the URL.
For more information see: Chicago Manual of Style, 15.47
Newspaper articles can be cited in the running text (e.g., As John Eligon mentioned in his November 18, 2015 New York Times article ....) and not included in the reference list. However, if a formal citation is needed, follow the examples below, separating the year and month/day.
Author Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Month Day, sec. Section.
Page numbers are not included because articles can appear on different pages in different editions. For regularly occurring columns, cite with both the column name and headline or just the column name. If citing an online newspaper, include the URL at the end. If citing from a library database, include the database name.
Eligon, John. 2015. "One Slogan, Many Methods: Black Lives Matter Enters Politics." New York Times, November 18. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/us/one-slogan-many-methods-black-lives-matter-enters-politics.html.
Erlanger, Steve. 1998. "Pact on Israeli Pullback Hinges on Defining Army's Role." New York Times, May 8, sec. A.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1966. "Negro Faces Dixie Justice." My Dream. Chicago Defender, April 23. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
Spencer, Scott. 1979. "Childhood's End." Harper's, May.
Tobar, Héctor. 2016. "Can Latinos Swing Arizona?" New Yorker. August 1. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/08/01/promise-arizona-and-the-power-of-the-latino-vote.
The author-year system of documentation is used more on the undergraduate level than the graduate. Fields that have ties to the liberal arts, such as geography, human development, and political science, tend to favor the author-year system.
Your basic job when using this system is to indicate right in the text—in parentheses—the author(s) and year of publication of the reference you are citing. Since the citation becomes part of your sentence, you delay the appropriate punctuation until after the parentheses:
In recent decades, anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, desertification, and urbanization have significantly altered the land surface (Nicholson 2007).
Many writers identify the source as soon as they begin the reference, including the author’s name directly in the text and supplying only the year in parentheses:
Furlong et al. (2001) estimate that the first Mt. Erebus eruption . . .
If you use two or more articles written by the same author(s) in the same year, you distinguish between the documents in your text and on your references page by using an "a,b,c" system, providing an identifying letter after the year:
Toon (1989a) found evidence of . . .
When citing web-based sources in your text, you will often encounter sources with no author listed. Handle these cases just as you would when citing print sources—that is, if no author’s name is given in the original, offer the title of the web page, or the publication’s title, or the publisher’s name. If such a title is lengthy enough to be awkward, offer a clear shortened form of the title, with the goal of making it easy for us to find the source on the references page. In the following example, a document authored by a governmental agency is identified by a shortened form of its name:
Coordinated measurements planned in the framework of the original program should help to explain the apparent discrepancies in the data (PRIMO document, 1989).
Other In-Text Citation Practices
Slight but important mechanical differences exist among in-text citation practices, in particular when you are trying to conform to a specific style, such as MLA (Modern Language Association) or APA (American Psychological Association). For example, MLA style requires you to provide the page number of your citation in-text, but not the year, while APA style asks you to place a comma between author and year. Please feel welcome to explore all of these nuances for yourself if you wish, and recognize that some professors will insist that you conform to a particular style. When professors do not dictate a particular style, they will usually simply expect you to use the author-year or number system with consistency throughout the paper.
Remember, too, that journals within your field have already made informed decisions about which in-text citation practices they use. To settle on citation particulars, many writers model a journal in their field—mandatory, of course, if you submit material to a journal hoping for publication.