In Text Referencing Harvard 2 Authors On Bibliography

To cite more than one author


Include both names in the order in which they appear on the title page:

(Gerster & Basset 1987) or:

Gerster and Basset (1987) assert that...

List of references

Gerster, R & Basset, J 1991, Seizures of youth: the sixties and Australia, Hyland House, Melbourne.

To cite more than three authors


Use the surname of the first author and et al. ('and others') in the text:

Leeder et al. (1996, p. 78) argued ... or:

(Leeder et al. 1996) 

List of references

Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Matthews, PS, Williams DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide.

Don't use et al, in the list of references. List all the authors i the order in which they appear on the title page.

Multiple authors of a work

Up to three authors - include all authors (with second and third author initials before surname).

In text example:

As Smith, Stewart and Cullen (2006) have argued...

Reference list example:

SMITH, F., R. STEWART and D. CULLEN, 2006.  Adoption now: law, regulations guidance and standards.  London: BAAF

More than three authors - always give the first author, with or without the others - use et al. if not giving the other names.

In text example:

Mares et al. (2002, p.105) proposed...

Reference list example:

MARES, P. et al., 2002. Health care in multiracial Britain. Cambridge: Health Education Council

Corporate authors

These can be a company/organisation/institution etc.

In text example:

Home Office (2001) has outlined...

Reference list example:

HOME OFFICE, 2001.  Policing a new century: a blueprint for reform.  Norwich: The Stationery Office

Missing authors (Anon.)

If a work has no author, ideally try and find a corporate author.  If you really can't find one, use Anon. (but consider the quality of the source to ensure you feel it is appropriate to include if no author is assigned to it).

In text example:

As evidenced by Anon. (2004)...

Reference list example:

ANON., 2004.  Social services year book 2004.  32nd ed.  Harlow: Pearson Education

Authors of multiple works

If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c, etc after the date to distinguish between them.

In text examples:

Smith (2007a, p.22) suggested… Further, Smith (2007b, p.3) explained…

Reference list examples:

SMITH, A., 2007a. How to cite references. Southampton: Solent Publishing

SMITH, A., 2007b. Avoiding plagiarism. Southampton: Solent Publishing

This system applies no matter what format the source material is in; so if an author published a book, a podcast and a journal article all in 2010, they would still be given as 2010a, 2010b and 2010c.

If an author has written more than one solo work in different years, list them in date order (oldest to newest).

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