Triple Wall Of Privilege Essay Writer

43g. Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom


President Wilson

Progressives did not come only in the Republican flavor. Thomas Woodrow Wilson also saw the need for change.

Born in Staunton, Virginia, Wilson served as president of Princeton University and governor of New Jersey. He combined a southern background with northern sensibilities.

Attacking the Triple Wall of Privilege

His 1912 platform for change was called the New Freedom. Wilson was an admirer of Thomas Jefferson. The agrarian utopia of small, educated farmers envisioned by Jefferson struck a chord with Wilson. Of course, the advent of industry could not be denied, but a nation of small farmers and small businesspeople seemed totally possible. The New Freedom sought to achieve this vision by attacking what Wilson called the Triple Wall of Privilege — the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.

Tariffs protected the large industrialists at the expense of small farmers. Wilson signed the Underwood-Simmons Act into law in 1913, which reduced tariff rates. The banking system also pinched small farmers and entrepreneurs. The gold standard still made currency too tight, and loans were too expensive for the average American. Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act, which made the nation's currency more flexible.

Unlike Roosevelt, Wilson did not distinguish between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts. Any trust by virtue of its large size was bad in Wilson's eyes. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 clarified the Sherman Act by specifically naming certain business tactics illegal. This same act also exempted labor unions from antitrust suits, and declared strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing perfectly legal.

In two years, he successfully attacked each "wall of privilege." Now his eyes turned to greater concerns, particularly the outbreak of the First World War in Europe.

Appeasing the Bull Moose

When Wilson's first term expired, he felt he had to do more. The nation was on the brink of entering the bloodiest conflict in human history, and Wilson had definite ideas about how the postwar peace should look. But he would have to survive reelection first.

As an appeal to the Roosevelt progressives, he began to sign many legislative measures suggested by the Bull Moose Campaign. He approved of the creation of a federal trade commission to act as a watchdog over business. A child labor bill and a workers' compensation act became law. Wilson agreed to limit the workday of interstate railroad workers to 8 hours. He signed a federal farm loan act to ease the pains of life on the farm.

Progressive Republicans in the Congress were pleased by Wilson's conversion to their brand of progressivism, and the American people showed their approval by electing him to a second term.

Discontent and Reform
This lengthy essay, which begins with a discussion of populism, includes several paragraphs relating to President Wilson's reforms, under the heading "Taft and Wilson."

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Federal Trade Commission
President Wilson created the Federal Trade Commission. What does the agency do today? Among other things, the FTC enforces a variety of federal antitrust and consumer protection laws. "The Commission seeks to ensure that the nation's markets function competitively, and are vigorous, efficient, and free of undue restrictions." Check out your tax dollars at work her.

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President of Princeton University
This biographical sketch of Woodrow Wilson looks at his days as president of Princeton University and innovations he brought to higher education, as well as his days as U.S. President. From the Library of Congress.

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Woodrow Wilson
The official White House biography of President Wilson, includes mention of the New Freedom program, links to his inaugural addresses and a trivia tidbit.

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Wilson's New Freedom & the Triple Wall of Privilege
 

Wilson's "New Freedom" versus Roosevelt's "New Nationalism"

President Wilson, like his predecessors Roosevelt and Taft, was a firm supporter of the Progressive Movement and Progressive reforms. The presidential election of 1912 saw Roosevelt standing for re-election against Woodrow Wilson. The men had different approaches to progressive reforms. Roosevelt and his Republican 'Bull Moose Party' stood for a program of New Nationalism favoring efficiency. Roosevelt accepted the economic power of the trusts but proposed new reforms to provide additional power to the federal government to regulate them.

Wilson's New Freedom
Wilson's New Freedom platform criticized Roosevelt’s New Nationalism program as one that supported "regulated monopoly", gave too much economic power to the federal government and failed to support small businesses, competition and free enterprise.

Wilson's New Freedom: Triple Wall of Privilege
President Woodrow Wilson coined the phrase "Triple Wall of Privilege" to describe his target goals of the banks, the tariff and the trusts. The 1913 cartoon by Fred Cooper illustrates President Woodrow Wilson attacking the "Triple Wall of Privilege". His actions included Reforming Tariffs, Reforming the Banks, Antitrust action and breaking up monopolies

Wilson's "New Freedom" versus Roosevelt's "New Nationalism"
President Wilson, like his predecessors Roosevelt and Taft, was a firm supporter of the Progressive Movement and Progressive reforms. The presidential election of 1912 saw Roosevelt standing for re-election against Woodrow Wilson. The men had different approaches to progressive reforms. Roosevelt stood for a program of New Nationalism favoring efficiency. Roosevelt accepted the economic power of the trusts but proposed new reforms to provide additional power to the federal government to regulate them. Wilson's New Freedom platform criticized Roosevelt’s New Nationalism program as one that supported "regulated monopoly", gave too much economic power to the federal government and failed to support small businesses, competition and free enterprise.

Wilson's New Freedom Vision
Democrat resident Woodrow Wilson's vision of his New Freedom program was to completely destroy the Big Business trusts and monopolies, limit governmental power and restore free enterprise and a competitive market for small farmers and businesses. Wilson put forward the strong argument that freedom was more important than efficiency - and his New Freedom presidential campaign won the election. He wasted no time in introducing his progressive reforms.

Wilson's New Freedom for kids: Woodrow Wilson's Reforms
President Woodrow Wilson's reforms included Underwood Tariff Bill to help lower the general tariff rate from about 40% to 26% and re-impose Income Tax, the Federal Reserve Act, the reorganization of trusts and the 1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act which banned price discrimination. Wilson's reforms also included Federal aid and Social Welfare reforms.

Wilson's New Freedom Reforms for kids: Reforming Tariffs and Taxes
A Tariff is a tax placed on goods that are imported from foreign countries. Woodrow Wilson believed that high tariffs were responsible for building up a collection of privileges and exemptions from competition resulting in powerful monopolies. In 1913 Wilson signed the Underwood Tariff into law substantially reducing the average tariff on imported goods which he believed would encourage American manufacturers to increase efficiency and become more competitive with their prices. The Underwood Tariff, aka the Revenue Act of 1913, also re-imposed federal Income Tax.

Wilson's New Freedom Reforms for kids: Reforming the Banks
Public confidence in America's banking system was low due to the collapse of small banks during periods of depression in which many Americans had lost their life savings. There was no central bank and Wilson decided to take action to restore the confidence of Americans in banks. Woodrow signed the 1913 Federal Reserve Act into law that established a a Federal Reserve system regulated by a Board of Governors with the power to set the interest rates the reserve banks charged other banks.

Wilson's New Freedom Reforms for kids: Antitrust Action
President Woodrow Wilson was determined to break the monopolies and trusts established by Big Businesses to the detriment of the small farmers and businessmen. Under Wilson's leadership Congress passed the 1914 Federal Trade Commission Act that created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 1914 as his antitrust action to investigate and monitor American business practices.  The Federal Trade Commission had the power to investigate companies and issue "cease and desist" notices against companies engaging in unfair trade practices, or those companies that damaged competition. The Wilson Antitrust Action was designed to limit activities that unfairly limited competition.

Wilson's New Freedom Reforms for kids: The Labor Unions and the Clayton Antitrust Act
President Woodrow Wilson was lobbied by Labor Unions for to exemption from the antitrust laws as their purpose was not to inhibit trade. As a result the Clayton Antitrust Act was passed into law which gave unions the right to exist. The Clayton Antitrust Act revised the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act and banned monopolistic practices by business and affirmed the right of workers to go on strike.

Wilson's New Freedom Reforms for kids: Social Welfare and Federal Aid
President Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom Reforms also included Federal Aid and Social Welfare reforms. The 1916 Keating-Owen Child Labor Act limited how many hours children were allowed to work prohibiting the employment of children under the age of fourteen in factories producing goods for interstate commerce.  The Federal Farm Loan Act was also passed during his presidency which created 12 Federal Land Banks to provide small farmers with long-term loans at low interest rates. Another important law to be passed was the 1916 Adamson Act, which established the 8 hour working day for railroad workers.

New Freedom for kids
The info about the New Freedom provides interesting facts and important information about this important event that occured during the presidency of the 28th President of the United States of America.

New Freedom for kids - President Woodrow Wilson Video
The article on the New Freedom provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important policies during his presidential term in office. The following Woodrow Wilson video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 28th American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1913 to March 4, 1921.

New Freedom

● Interesting Facts about New Freedom for kids and schools
● Key events and New Freedom  for kids
● The New Freedom, a major event in US history
● Woodrow Wilson Presidency from March 4, 1913 to March 4, 1921
● Fast, fun facts about the New Freedom
● Foreign & Domestic policies of President Woodrow Wilson
● Woodrow Wilson Presidency and New Freedom for schools, homework, kids and children

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