Essay About Romanian Language Spoken

Romanian (limba română) is the official language of Romania.
The name Romania, and its derivatives, come from the Latin word 'Romanus' (citizen of Rome),
a legacy of the Roman Empire who took control of ancient Dacia (today Romania) in 106 A.D.
Romanian retains a significant number of features of old Latin and also contains words taken from the surrounding Slavic languages, as well as from French, German, Greek and Turkish.

Romanian is actually easier for English speakers to understand than it is assumed. If you've studied other Romance language, such as Italian, Spanish, French or Portuguese, you may feel at home sooner than you think.
Romanian is a phonetic language, so words are pronounced as they are spelled.

Romanian holds the intriguing status of being the only Romance language spoken in Eastern Europe.

A foreigner trying to learn or speak Romanian can expect positive reactions from native speakers.
Most Romanian will certainly appreciate the fact that you are making an effort to speak their language.

Other languages used in Romania

English has quickly overtaken French as the country's second language, especially with the young people. Communicating in English in large towns in cities should not be a problem.

French and German can also be useful.
In the past, Romania had a sizable German minority population;
nowadays the number of native German speakers is declining
but German is still used by communities in southern Transylvania and in Banat (Western Romania).

Hungarian is widely used in Covasna and Harghita counties, in Eastern Transylvania.
15% to 35% of the population of some larger cities in Central and Western Romania (Târgu-Mureş, Oradea, Cluj-Napoca, Satu-Mare) speaks Hungarian. 

Other Romance languages (especially Spanish and Italian) are also studied by most people in schools
and are therefore spoken with a pretty good level of fluency.   

Pronunciation Guide

The Romanian alphabet has 31 letters, similar to the ones in the English alphabet,
with the exception of five special letters called 'diacritics':
ă (like the 'a' in English word 'musical'),
ș (pronounced as 'sh'),
ț (pronounced 'ts'),
â and î (have the same reading, without an English equivalent).

Certain letters (and letter combinations) are pronounced differently than they are in English.

Romanian LettersPronunciation
ăas in father
î, âNo English equivalent
eas in tell
i[e] as in pick
jas in leisure
şas in shoe
ţ[ts] as in fits
ceas in check
gi[dsi] as in gin
ge[dse] as in gender
chi[ki] as in skill
che[ke] as in chemistry
ghi[gi] as in give
ghe[ge] as in guess

Useful Words / Phrases

ENGLISHROMÂNĂPRONUNCIATION
SalutationsFormule de salut 
Good morning. Bună dimineaţa. Boo-nuh di-mi-na-tsa
Hello/Good day. Bună ziua.Boo-nuh zee-wa.
Good evening. Bună seara. Boo-nuh sea-ra.
Good-bye. La revedere.La rev-eh-de-ray
Good night. Noapte bună.Nwap-te boo-nuh
My name is . . .Numele meu este …Noo-me-le meuyes-te ...
What is your name?Cum vă numiţi?Koom vuh noo-mits?
How are you?Ce mai faceţi?Che may fa-chets
I'm fine, thanks.Bine, mulţumesc.Bee-nay, mool-tsoo-mesk
Do you speak English?
. . .  Romanian?
Vorbiţi englezeşte?
. . .  româneşte?
Vor-bits en-gle-zesh-te
. . .  ro-mi-nesh-te
Yes, a little.
No.
Da, puţin.
Nu.
Da, poo-tsin.
Noo.
Please speak slowly.Vă rog, vorbiţi mai rar.Vuh rog, vor-bits may rar
How do you say . . . ?Cum se spune  . . . ?Koom se spoo-ne . . . ?
Do you understand? Înţelegeţi?In-tse-le-jets
I don't understand. Nu înţeleg.Noo in-tse-leg
Please repeat it.Vă rog, repetaţi. Vuh rog, re-pe-tats
I'm sorry.Îmi pare rău.Im pa-re rau
Where are you staying?Unde staţi?Oon-de stats?
I'm at the … hotel.Stau la Hotelul …Stau la ho-te-lool …
Good / Very good. Bine / Foarte bine.Boon / Fwar-tay boo-na
Maybe.Poate.Pwa-te
Certainly.Sigur.Si-goor
May I ?Se poate?Se pwa-te?
Thank you. Mulţumesc.Mool-tsoo-mesk
You're welcomeCu plăcere Koo pluh-che-re
I don't know.Nu ştiu.Noo shtee-u
I would like... Aş vrea... Osh vray-a
...and / or......şi / sau... shee / sow
I have / We have Am / Avem... Ahm / Ah-vum
What are you doing?Ce faceţi?Che fa-chets
I beg your pardon? Poftiţi? Pof-tits
Excuse me...Scuzaţi-mă. . .Skoo-za-tsi ma
Here... Aici... Ah-eech…
There... Acolo... Ah-ko-lo
Toward...Spre... Spreh
DAYS OF THE WEEKZILELE SĂPTĂMÂNII 
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
luni
marţi
miercuri
joi
vineri
sâmbătă  
duminică 
loon'
marts'
myer-koor'
zho'
vi-ner'
sîm-buh-tuh
doo-mi-ni-kuh
NUMBERALSNUMERALE 
zerozeroze-ro
oneunu oo-noo
twodoidoy
threetrei trey
fourpatru pa-troo
fivecincichinch'
sixşasesha-se
sevenşapteshap-te
eightoptopt
ninenouă no-wuh
tenzeceze-che
elevenunsprezece oon-spre-ze-che
twelvedoisprezecedoy -spre-ze-che
thirteentreisprezece trey -spre-ze-che
fourteenpaisprezecepay-spre-ze-che
fifteencincisprezecechinch '-spre-ze-che
sixteenşaisprezeceshay-spre-ze-che
seventeenşaptesprezeceshap-te-spre-ze-che
eighteenoptsprezeceopt-spre-ze-che
nineteennouăsprezeceno-wuh-spre-ze-che
twentydouăzecido-wuh zech'
twenty-onedouăzeci şi unudo-wuh-zech' shi oo-noo
twenty-twodouăzeci şi doido-wuh-zech' shi doy
thirtytreizecitrey-zech'
fortypatruzecipa-troo- zech'
fiftycincizecichinch'- zech'
sixtyşaizecishay- zech'
seventyşaptezecishap-te- zech'
eightyoptzecioot-zech'
ninetynouăzecino-whu-zech
one hundredo sutăo soo-tuh
two hundreddouă sutedo-wuh soo-te
MONTHS OF THE YEARLUNILE ANULUI 
Januaryianuarie ya-nwa-rye
Februaryfebruariefe-brwa-rye
Marchmartiemar-tye
Aprilapriliea-pri-lye
Maymaimay
Juneiunieyu-ny
Julyiulieyu-lye
Augustaugustaugoost
Septemberseptembriesep-tem-brye
Octoberoctombrieok-tom-brye
Novembernoiembrieno-yem-bry
Decemberdecembriede-chem-brye
AT THE HOTELLA HOTEL 
I have a reservation.Am o rezervare.Am o re-zer-va-re.
Do you have a double room?
. . . single
Aveţi o cameră dublă?
. . . single
A-vets o ka-me-ruh pen-troo do-wuh per-swa-me?
. . . o per-swa-nuh     
Do you have a room with a bath?
. . . a shower
. . . air conditioning
. . . twin beds
Aveţi o cameră cu baie?

. . . duş
. . . aer condiţionat
. . . două paturi
A-vets o ka-me-ruh cu ba-ye?
. . . doosh
. . . a-er kon-di-tsyo-nat
. . . do-wuh pa-toor'
What is the rate per day?Cât costă pe zi? Kit kos-tuh pe zi?
Is breakfast included? Micul dejun e inclus?Mic de-jun ye in-kloo-suh?
Your name, please?
. . . address
Numele dumneavoastră, vă rog?
Adresa . . .
Noo-me-le doom-nea-vwas-truh, vuh-rog?
A-dre-sa . . .
Please wake me up at 6 am. Vă rog, treziţi-mă la şase dimineaţa. Vuh rog, tre-zi-tsi-muh la sha-se di-mi-nea-tsa.
On what floor is my room?La ce etaj e camera mea?La che e-tazh ye ka-me-ra mea?
I need ice,
please
. . . . another blanket
. . . an electric fan
. . . a heater
. . . an iron
. . . a light bulb
. . . a pillow
. . . shampoo
. . . soap
. . . toilet paper
. . . a towel
Am nevoie de gheaţă,
vă rog.

. . . încă o pătură
. . . un ventilator
. . . un reşou
. . . un fier de călcat
. . . un bec
. . . o pernă
. . . şampon
. . . săpun
. . . hârtie igienică
. . . un prosop
Am ne-vo-ye de gea-tsuh,
vuh rog.
. . . in-kuh o puh-too-ruh
. . . oon ven-ti-la-tor
. . . oon re-shoh
. . . oon fyer de kuhl-kat
. . . oon bek
. . . o per-nuh
. . . sham-pon
. . . suh-poon
. . . hîr-tee-ye i-ji-e-ni-kuh
. . . oon pro-sop
At what time is breakfast served?La ce oră se serveşte micul dejun?La cheo-ruh se ser-vesh-te mi-kool de-zhoon?
I'm leaving today.Plec astăzi.Plek as-tuhz'.
Please call a taxiVă rog, chemaţi un taxi.Vuh rog, ke-ma-tsim'oon ta-xi.
MONEYBANI 
Do you accept traveler's checks?
. . . credit card?
Acceptaţi cecuri de călătorie?
. . . Carte de credit?
Ak-chep-tats' che-koor' de kuh-luh-to-ri-ye?
. . . kar-tea as-ta de kre-dit
Where is a foreign currency exchange?
. . . a bank
Unde e un birou de schimb valutar?
. . . o bancă
Oon-de ye oon bi-row de skimb va-loo-tar?
. . .o ban-ka
What is today's exchange rate?Care e cursul de schimb astăzi?Ka-re ye koor-sool de skimb as-tuhz'
Please change this to lei.Schimbaţi-mi în lei, vă rog.Skim-bats 'm in lay, vuh-rog
TRANSPORTATIONTRANSPORT 
Where is the
. . . metro station?
. . . train station
. . . bus stop
. . . ticket office
. . . information desk
. . . exit to the street
Unde e . . . ?
staţia de metrou
. . . gara
. . . staţia de autobuz 
. . . casa de bilete
. . . biroul de informaţii
. . . ieşirea spre stradă
Oon-de ye  . . . ?
. . . sta-tsya de me-troh
. . . ga-ra
. . . sta-tsya de a-oo-to-booz
. . . ka-sa de bi-le-te?
. . . bi-ro-ool de in-for-ma-tsiy
. . . ye-shi-rea spre stra-duh
How much is a
ticket ?
. . . one-way
. . . round-trip
. . . first-class
. . . second-class
Cât costă
un bilet ?

. . . dus
. . . dus - întors  
. . . la clasa întâi
. . . la clasa a doua
Kit kos-tuh
oon bi-let ?
. . . doos
. . . doos shi în-tors
. . . la kla-sa yn-tyi
. . . la kla-sa a do-wa
Is there a special . . . rate?
. . . college students
. . . senior-citizens
Există tarif redus pentru. . .?
. . . studenţi
 . . . pensionari
E-xis-tuh ta-rif re-doos
pen-tru . . .?
. . . stoo-dents'
. . . pen-syo-nar'
Smoking or     
non-smoking?
Fumători sau
   nefumători?
Foo-muh-tor' sau
ne-foo-muh-tor'?
TRAIN TRAVELCALATORIA CU TRENUL 
At what time does the train leave for…?La ce oră pleacă trenul spre …?La cheo-ruh plea-kuh tre-nool / spre ...?
At what time does the train get to …?La ce oră ajunge trenul la ...?La che o-ruh a-zhoon-je tre-nool la ...?
Is there a . . . ?
. . . dining car
. . . sleeping car
Există . . . ?
. . .vagon-restaurant
. . .vagon de dormit
E-xis-tuh . . . ?
. . . va-gon res-ta-oo-rant
. . . va-gon de dor-mit
BY CARCU MAȘINA 
Where can I rent a car?Unde pot închiria o maşină?Oon-de pot in-ki-rya o ma-shi-nuh?
Do you know the road to?ştiţi drumul spre …?Shtiudroo-mool spre… ?
Is the road good?
. . . bad
Drumul e bun?
. . . prost
Droo-mool ye boon?
. . . prost
Which town does this road lead to?Spre ce oraş duce drumul ăsta?Spre cheo-rash doo-che droo-mool uhs-ta
How many kilometers to?Câţi kilometri sunt până la.... ?Kits' ki-lo-me-tri sint pi-nuh la ...?
Could you direct me . . . ?
. . . to the next town
. . . to the highway
. . . to the parking lot
Cum se ajunge  . . . ?
 . . . în următorul oraş
 . . . pe autostradă
 . . . la parcare
Koom se a-zhoon-je . . . ?
. . . in oor-muh-to-rool o-rash
. . . pe a-oo-to-stra-duh
. . . la par-ka-re
Is it far?E departe?Ye de-par-te?
Could you direct me to...?
. . .  a garage
. . . a gas station
Cum se ajunge la . . . ?
. . . un garaj
. . . o benzinărie
Koom se a-zhoon-je la  ?
. . . oon ga-rash
. . . o ben-zi-nuh-ree-ye
I need gasoline.Am nevoie de benzină.Am ne-vo-ye de ben-zi-nuh.
Please fill the tank up.Vă rog, faceţi plinul.Vuh rog, fa-chets' pli-nool.
Where can I find a mechanic?Unde pot găsi un mecanic?Oon-de pot guh-si oon me-ka-nik?
Please repair . . .
. . . the tire
. . . the headlight
Vă rog, reparaţi  . . .
. . . cauciucul
. . . farul
Vuh rog, re-pa-rats'  . . .
. . . ka-oo-chyu-kool
. . . fa-rool
How much will it cost?Cât costă?Kit kos-tuh?
When will it be ready?Când e gata?Kind ye ga-ta?
IMPORTANT SIGNSSEMNE IMPORTANTE 
MenBărbaţiBuhr-bats'
WomenFemeiFeh-mey
ToiletW.C.Ve-che
EntranceIntrareIn-tra-re
ExitIeşireYe-shi-re
Emergency ExitIeşire de incendiuYe-shi-re de in-chen-dyu
OpenDeschisDehs-kis
ClosedÎnchisYn-kis
SubwayMetrouMe-troh
CautionAtenţieA-ten-tsye
DangerPericolPe-ri-kol
Speed LimitLimită de vitezăLi-mi-tuh de vi-te-zuh
Reduce SpeedReduceţi vitezaRe-doo-chets' vi-te-za
ParkingParcarePar-ka-re
No ParkingParcare interzisăPar-ka-re in-ter-zi-suh
No StandingStaţionarea interzisăSta-tsyo-na-rea  in-ter-zi-suh
One Way StreetStradă cu sens unicStra-duh koo sens oo-nik
Right TurnCurbă la dreaptaKoor-buh la dreap-ta
Left TurnCurbă la stângaKoor-buh la stîn-ga
Dangerous CurveCurbă periculoasăKoor-buh pe-ri-koo-lwa-suh
Sharp TurnViraj bruscVi-razh broosk
Keep RightStaţi pe dreaptaStats' pe dreap-ta
Keep LeftStaţi pe stângaStats' pe stîn-ga
Automobiles ProhibitedInterzis pentru automobileIn-ter-zispen-troo a-oo-to-mo-bi-le
Vehicles ProhibitedInterzis pentru vehiculeIn-ter-zispen-troo ve-hi-ko-le
No EntryIntrarea interzisăIn-tra-rea in-ter-zi-suh
No AdmittanceIntrarea oprităIn-tra-rea o-pri-tuh
DetourOcolO-kol
TunnelTunelToo-nel
BridgePodPod
OverpassPasaj superior Pa-sazh soo-pe-ri-or de ni-vel
UnderpassPasaj subteranPa-sazh in-fe-ri-or de ni-vel
This WayPe aiciPeh a-ich'
RailroadCale feratăKa-le fe-ra-tuh
Railroad CrossingTrecere peste calea feratăTre-che-re  pes-te ka-lea fe-ra-tuh
First Aid StationPost de prim ajutorPost de prim a-zhoo-tor
No SmokingFumatul interzisFoo-ma-tool in-ter-zis

Romanian language, also spelled (formerly) Rumanian, Romanian limba română, Romance language spoken primarily in Romania and Moldova. Four principal dialects may be distinguished: Dacoromanian, the basis of the standard language, spoken in Romania and Moldova in several regional variants; Aromanian (also called Macedoromanian), spoken in scattered communities in Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Kosovo, and Serbia; Meglenoromanian, a nearly extinct dialect of northern Greece and southeastern Macedonia; and Istroromanian, also nearly extinct, spoken in Istria, a peninsula that is part of Croatia and Slovenia. Mutual intelligibility between the major dialects is difficult; the Meglenoromanian, Istroromanian, and Aromanian are sometimes classed as languages distinct from Romanian proper, or Dacoromanian, which has many slightly varying dialects of its own. Moldovan, the national language of Moldova, is a form of Dacoromanian. It is written in the Latin alphabet.

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Romance languages

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In the early 21st century there were about 23,943,000 speakers of Romanian, of whom about 19,900,000 live in Romania, some 3,000,000 in Moldova, some 318,000 in Ukraine, some 250,000 in Israel, about 200,000 in Serbia, and 14,000 in Hungary. There are about 147,000 Romanian speakers in the United States. An additional 114,000 speak Aromanian (also called Macedoromanian, or Vlach), a group of dialects scattered across Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, and Romania.

Romanian phonology and grammar have developed in rather different directions from those of most other Romance languages because of the language’s relative isolation from other Romance languages and its close contact with the Slavic languages as well as Hungarian, Turkish, and Albanian. Romanian continues a Latin distinction between long o and short u, fused in most other Romance languages, but, like almost all others, it has lost the Latin distinction between long e and short i. In consonant clusters there has been a tendency to replace velar consonants k and g with labial consonants, such as p, b, or m (e.g., Latin ŏcto “eight,” Romanian opt; Latin cognatum “relative, kinsman,” Romanian cumnat). Nouns in Romanian have two cases, direct (nominative-objective) and oblique (possessive-dative), and have separate singular and plural forms for the noun standing alone and the noun with the definite article suffixed. Verbs have a shortened infinitive (e.g., a cînta from Latin cantare “to sing”), and the future tense is formed by a compound of the verb a vrea “to wish” plus the infinitive of the verb—voi cînta “I will sing”; an alternative method of future formation is to use the auxiliary verb a avea “to have” plus plus the subjunctive of the verb—am să cînt “I will sing.”

The standard language of Romania is based on a Walachian variety of Dacoromanian, the majority group of dialects; it was developed in the 17th century mainly by religious writers of the Orthodox church and includes features from a number of dialects, though Bucharest usage provides the current model. Dacoromanian is fairly homogeneous but shows greater dialectal diversity in the Transylvanian Alps, from which region the language may have spread to the plains. During the Soviet era the language of Moldova was written in the Cyrillic alphabet, called “Moldavian,” and held by Soviet scholars to be an independent Romance language. Currently called either Romanian or Moldovan, since 1989 the language has been written in the Roman alphabet. While the Meglenoromanian (Meglenitic) and Istroromanian dialects are both nearly extinct, Aromanian is more vigorous. Numbers have probably decreased considerably, but certainly before 1940 Aromanians were often prominent businessmen in their localities. The first known inscription in Aromanian, dated 1731, was found in 1952 at Ardenita, Albania; texts date to the end of the 18th century, and literary texts were published in the 19th and 20th centuries (mostly in Bucharest).

The first known Dacoromanian text is a private letter of Walachian origin dated 1521, though some manuscript translations of religious texts show Transylvanian dialect features and may be earlier. The oldest printed texts are Evangheliarul slavo-român (1551–52; “The Slavo-Romanian Gospels”) of Sibiu and the works of Deacon Coresi, beginning in 1559. The vast majority of early texts are written in Cyrillic script, the Roman (Latin) alphabet having been officially adopted in 1859 at the time of the union of Walachia and Moldavia. Literature in Romanian began to flourish in the 19th century, when the emerging nation turned toward other Romance countries, especially France, for cultural inspiration. That circumstance had important consequences for the language, triggering the so-called re-Romanization of Romanian.

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