Bibliography Feature Word 2007

Some time back I took a quick look at Word 2007’s Citation and Bibliography styles. At the time, I was checking if the referencing style my client used was available, and if not, whether I could find something suitable and/or modify it. At that time I came across BibWord, but it all looked too hard.

Fast forward almost a year, and I got to investigate this function again as I may be working on a very large scientific report next year that will have multiple authors and potentially hundreds of references that those authors will have to cite. I wanted to see how hard it was to enter new references in Word 2007, whether I could modify a BibWord style that was close to what we require, and generally just put this Word 2007 function through its paces.

I must say I’ve been impressed with BibWord so far, and particularly impressed with the developer’s response to my many questions about sharing references across multiple authors and multiple sections of the document (see this Forum post for my questions and his very prompt answers:

However, I’m not as impressed with the Word 2007 functionality. At first glance it looks easy to use. But there are some serious usability issues with the dialog boxes that make it very cumbersome to use if you have a large list of references, references with particularly long titles, and references that include things like Acts of parliament or species names that typically take the opposite formatting of the title (e.g. if you have a title that contains a species name, you would italicize the main title but not the species name if you were entering the reference manually).

Here are some of the shortcomings I’ve found with the Manage Sources and Create Source dialog boxes, and the Insert Citation function in Word 2007. Most, if not all of these, should have been fixed prior to release as none of them are difficult fixes, in my opinion (I’m not a programmer, but I’ve been around enough programmers in software companies for the last 18+ years to have some understanding of what’s do-able and what’s not).

Manage Sources/Create Source dialog boxes

  • Title field is limited to <255 characters. However, I have several docs with LONG titles, including Government reports, names of Standards, corporate reports etc. e.g. Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors Western Australia (in accordance with the Environmental Protection Act 1986) – Terrestrial Flora and Vegetation Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, No. 51. Or this one: State Water Quality Management Strategy No. 6 (SWQ6): Implementation Framework for Western Australia for the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality and Water Quality Monitoring and Reporting (Guidelines No 4 & 7: National Water Quality Management Strategy). I cannot enter the full title because of this limitation.
  • Manage Sources dialog box cannot be resized by the user. This means that long titles that start with the same words (e.g. a long project title) cannot be viewed in full the top panels; they can only be viewed in the bottom panel after you select the reference.
  • You have to scroll to see more than four lines of a reference. This is crazy! When you select a reference in the top panel, only a couple of lines of it display in the lower section (including a blank line!) and you have to scroll to see it all, even if there’s only half a line that’s not visible. This is just BAD design.
  • No formatting can be applied to a title or any other field. So, if you have the title of an Act of Parliament in the title or the name of a species, you can’t specify that it is not to be displayed in italics.
  • You cannot specify an abbreviation of a long corporate author for the citation. For example, ‘Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand’ goes into the citation in full each time, whereas after first usage, my authors want to cite it as ‘ANZECC/ARMCANZ’.
  • Symbols such as en dashes cannot be inserted easily. For example, our style is to use an en dash to separate a page range. You can’t insert one in the field using the keyboard or a toolbar icon — the only way you can insert an en dash is to copy it from somewhere else and paste it in.
  • Non-breaking spaces and non-breaking hyphens cannot be inserted. Some titles include elements that shouldn’t split when they wrap to the next line (e.g. a value and its unit of measure, or a date in full in the title should not be separated), so I would normally insert use a non-breaking space or a non-breaking hyphen for these.
  • You cannot insert a reference into the document from the Manage Sources dialog box. It would be useful to have an Insert button on the Manage Sources window too so that you can select from list and immediately insert the citation. Same for an Insert Placeholder option from the Manage Sources window.
  • AutoCorrect doesn’t work in the fields on the Manage Sources window. If you’ve specified an AutoCorrect entry for common phrases etc. (e.g .epa for Environmental Protection Authority), it won’t work. This means you have to type the complete phrase in EVERY time, or copy/paste it.
  • AutoComplete doesn’t work in the fields on the Manage Sources window. There’s no ‘memory’ of previous data entry. This means you can make errors like entering both ‘Environment Protection Agency’ and ‘Environmental Protection Authority’ (or any other typos) and it won’t be picked up – you won’t see it until you notice similar entries in the bibliography and wonder why they are out of order.
  • You cannot duplicate an existing entry. Being able to duplicate and modify the duplicate then save it as a new entry would save a LOT of time in data entry! For example, we will have hundreds of internal reports that will be cited. They all have the same corporate author, place of publication etc. and many start with the same project title. Being able to copy an existing entry and modify it would save us bucketloads of time.
  • Sort by Author doesn’t work as expected. ‘Sort by Author’ is the default sort for items listed in the two panels on the Manage Sources dialog box, and the sources are listed by author then title then date. However, the sort doesn’t appear to be by author at all. At first I thought it was by title, then I thought it was by type of reference (e.g. reports before journal articles before books, before web documents), then by whether it’s a corporate author or a ‘normal’ author. But I’m really not sure — it appears to be random! Fortunately, the Insert Citation list is in author order, so is easier to navigate.

    These are all corporate authors and they are all reports, but they aren’t sorted by author

  • Sort by Title doesn’t ignore initial articles. Therefore titles starting with ‘The’ are listed under T, not the second word as is standard practice (same for titles starting with A and An).

    The second title ‘A new…’ should be listed under ‘N’ not ‘A’

  • Finding a reference in a long list is very difficult. It’s very hard to find an author or title in a LONG list (and I’m talking hundreds of references – our manual master references list is over 100 pages, with anything from 10 to 15 references per page!). Sorting helps to an extent (see the limitations I’ve listed above), but with a window that cannot be resized, it’s trial and error to find the correct reference.
  • Minor quibbles about the layout of the Manage Sources and Create Sources dialog boxes. Some fields should be small in width (e.g. a year is only ever a maximum of four numbers, yet the Year field extends across the form). The option to Show All Bibliography Fields may not be needed if the window was resizable — for some reference types, clicking this option only displays one extra field, so it seems a bit strange.

Insert Citation list

  • Very difficult to find/jump to items in a long list. When you’ve added more than about 12 sources, the selection list on the Insert Citation list gets a scroll bar and it can be difficult finding the reference you want. I expect my long document to have a few hundred sources, so this could be painful…. As far as I can tell, you can’t type a letter to jump to that section of the list, so scrolling to find the W authors in a sea of hundreds of citations every time I want to insert that citation would become really tedious really quickly.


  • You cannot edit a source from within the  bibliography. You can right-click on a citation and get the option to edit it from there, but you can’t right-click on an entry in the automated bibliography and get the option to edit that entry on the Manage Source dialog. This means you either have to either find the citation and right-click on it, or open the Manage Source dialog and hunt for the reference there to edit it.

Bottom line:

With some real-life usability testing, I suspect most of these issues would have shown up to developers BEFORE they released this feature of Word 2007. I suspect that no-one tested it with hundreds of references (as would be used in a thesis or major scientific report) — if they had, they would have realized that it has severe limitations from a usability perspective.

Anyone know someone in the Microsoft Word team? If so, can you pass this blog post on to them.

[Links last checked December 2010]

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Posted in User experience, Word| Tagged citations, references|

This Answer follows the comments made on the Question. It currently assumes Word 2007 and that the .xsl template being used is called APASixthEditionOfficeOnline.xsl, which may be in "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office12\Bibliography\Style"

This XSL Transform contains a Template called templ_str_AndOthersUnCap. (my previous comment said "templ_str_AndOtherUnCap" which is incorrect.

Open that file using a suitable editor (Windows Notepad works). Save the file under another name (say, "APA6mod.xsl"). Modify the file as follows:

Replace the entire called "templ_str_AndOthersUnCap" with the following XSL code:

Adjust "et al." to be the precise text you need. You may also need to modify the LCID "3082" or modify the "test=" part to deal with several possible LCIDs (for Spanish (Spain), Spanish (Mexico) etc.). For example:

adds the Spanish "traditional sort" LCID.

Find the following template:

and replace the template by

(Change the relevant texts in there as you think fit. The "APA Sixth Edition mod" text is the one that appears in the dropdown in Word's Ribbon).

Save the file again.

Restart Word, open the document containing the bibliography, then use References->Citations and Bibliography->Style to select the new XSL. Word verifies and loads the various .xsl files when you click that dropdown. If everything is OK, you should now see two APA6 styles - the original one, and the one titled "APA Sixth Edition mod". If you do not see the "mod" one, it probably indicates that either the .xsl file is in the wrong folder, or that there is an error in the .xsl file.

If you do the new Style, select it. As far as I can tell, Word should re-evaluate all the Citation and Bibliography fields automatically. You should verify that everything is OK and that you now have the text you want. Remember that you would need this transform on each PC where you need to view/print the document.

Once Word has decided that your .xsl is valid, you can in fact keep it open and modify it while Word is still open. This makes debugging a bit easier. For example, if you need to change the "et al."in the template you modified, you could

  • open the .xsl file in Notepad
  • modify the "et al." text
  • save the file
  • in Word, choose a different Style in the dropdown
  • in Word, choose the "mod" style in the dropdown

However, if you make a mistake that invalidates the XSL, when you try that last step, your "mod" Style will disappear from the dropdown. At that point you will have to fix the template and restart Word to get it to see your Style again.

I have now looked at the situation for Word 2010, and as far as I can see, the same template is used, the same changes would work, but the default location is different (use "Office14" in the path name rather than "Office12"). I have not looked at Windows Word 2013 or 2016.

As a bit of background, the XSL code to do with LCIDs is trying to establish what LCID (locale ID) it should use. Ideally, we would be able to avoid hardcoding "et al." by writing the XSL so that it said "If the LCID is 3082, use LCID 1033 (or whatever) instead". But Word does not load the regional information for all regions, only the regional information for the citation that it is currently processing. So hardcoding of one kind or another is probably unavoidable.

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